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December 11 Valedictory, 2015


India’s INDC is prepared in a balanced and comprehensive manner to reflect all issues of

mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity building while simultaneously endeavoring to meet all the developmental challenges that the country faces today.

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Activities at India Pavilion on December 04, 2015, Le Bourget, Paris


















First session on gHG Mitigation in Transport Sector Road Map for India , 4 th December 2015 , La Bourget, Paris


Session on Climate Justice and Equity -Operationalizing Equity and the Global Carbon Budget with Key note address by Our Secretary


Centre for Science and Environment organized a side event in the COP21 at the India Pavillion along with the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change titled “Equity and Climate Justice: Operationalising Equity and the Global Carbon Budget.” Sh. Ashok Lavasa, Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change started the conversation claiming “Climate change is a consequence of the path of economic development chosen by the world and developing country should not be denied this development.”

Most equity models show that developed countries have already exhausted their carbon budget and there is very little budget for them to continue emitting.  If they apportion more carbon budget for the future, which they would do under their current unilateral pledges, then they would occupy more carbon space unfairly. The climate deal would be iniquitous.

 The presenters from CSE, Mr. Arjuna Srinidhi presented their analysis of linking human development index with the carbon space left for the developing world. He concluded “Given the limitations of the carbon budget, most of the world which hasn’t achieved the high HDI might not have the opportunity to do so.” Mr. T. Jayaraman, from Tata Institute of Social Sciences presented his model on operationalising carbon budget based on science said “Fair share of future carbon space must be accompanied by finance and technology transfer based on unaccessible carbon space.” Mr. Josep Xercavins, Professor, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya explained his model of Global Carbon Budget Distribution Based on Climate Justice, explaining “The model treats all inhabitants of the planet equally, but taking into account the different historical responsibilities of each one of the UNFCCC state parties, in so far as emissions are concerned.”

 Interestingly, all the three models presented showed a point of convergence in establishing the fact that there needs to be fair distribution of remaining carbon budget and the developing countries including India should be given space for development. Mr. Chandra Bhushan, deputy director general, CSE concluded the event stating “There is a need for an operational mechanism of allocation of carbon budget to be established under the Paris Agreement.”

 Sh. Sushil Kumar, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change said “we have equity enshrined in the framework convention alongside CBDR and whenever I am asked this question, I always respond, if we are looking at an agreement without equity and CBDR, then there is no agreement. So far, in the proposed text we have been successful in retaining both equity and CBDR in a very effective way. We will make sure it continues to get reflected in decisions. Whether or how we operationalise will come later. As a guiding principal equity remains there. We will receive support from civil society organization. We will receive support from a part of the developed nations. We are going to contest who do not agree. Equity is essential aspect of climate justice. Climate justice is an all-encompassing phrase. This coinage has caught attention of some other nations also.

 The three studies convergently highlighted the responsibility of the developed nations. It was highlighted that the developed countries have the obligation to provide financial resources, including technology transfer and capacity building to all the developing countries. The panelists also talked about the historical legacy and asserted that the developing countries, get the preponderant right over the remaining carbon space and pre-1990 carbon overuse should be converted into finance, technology and capacity building assistance.


 Mr Susheel Kumar Adl Secretary MOEF summarising session on Equity and Carbon Budget


400-500 people visited India Pavilion including Mr. Lord Bourne, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Department of Energy and Climate Change, United Kigdom and Mr. Pierre Gattaz, President French Business Confederation. Today at the India Pavilion at the Conference of Parties (COP) 21 Climate Summit, two panel discussions on “Emerging scenario in medium and long distance transportation in India- its impact on GHG emissions” and “Technology and finance requirements for a low carbon trajectory for the transport sector” shed light on the initiatives already undertaken and the concerted efforts that need to be undertaken to make the transport networks energy efficient.


 At the session hosted by the Ministry of Railways, Government of India, on “GHG Mitigation in Transport Sector- Roadmap for India”, eminent panelists discussed the scope for reducing emissions caused by the Indian transportation network. The Transport sector in India accounts for a growing proportion of air pollution in cities. In addition, the sector contributes significantly to greenhouse gases emissions and is a major consumer of petroleum fuels.


 In a video message to the gathering, Hon’ble Minister for Railways Shri Suresh Prabhu said, “The biggest challenge facing the world is climate change. It has been caused by human action and we are all working towards addressing the challenges of that arise from climate change. In India we have undertaken several initiatives like energy audits, use of LED lights, bio toilets, and water audits that will enhance the energy efficiency levels of Indian Railways.”


Eminent panelists included Mr. Abhay Bakre, Executive Director (Environment), Ministry of Railways, Government of India, Mr. Hemant Kumar, Member Mechanical, Railway Board, Ministry of Railways, Government of India, Mr. Arun Sharma, Chairman & Managing Director, Indian Register of Shipping, Mr. N.K. Sharma, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Mr. Shri Prakash, Distinguished Fellow, TERI, India, Mr Nicholas Craven, Manager, UIC, Mr. Anuj Dayal (ED), Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC),  Mr Sarbojit Pal, TERI, and Mr Ashok Bhargava, Asian Development Bank.

 Focusing on railways, Mr. Hemant Kumar, Member Mechanical, Railway Board, Ministry of Railways, said: “Railways have a 4.33% share of greenhouse gas emissions in India compared to road, which stands at 87.47%. We are undertaking several initiatives to ensure energy efficiency across the railway by committing to source at least 10% of electric energy through renewable sources such as solar, wind and bio diesel.”


 “The Indian Railways has a host of mitigation strategies and initiatives to lower its carbon footprint. There is already an improvement in fuel efficiency,” he added.


Adding perspective about the aviation sector, Ms Gargi Kaul, JS (Financial), Ministry of Civil Aviation, said, “India is the ninth largest aviation market with potential to grow to the third. Aviation’s contribution to climate change, though small at present, could grow if appropriate measures are not taken. To meet the objective of sustainable aviation in India, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) has advised airlines to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emission by possible methods.”


The Ministry of Civil aviation has laid out a road map in its draft civil aviation policy. It will work with DGCA and industry stakeholders to develop an action plan for making all Indian airports carbon neutral by 1 April 2030 and strengthen policy guidelines on energy conservation.

 Elaborating on road transport, Mr N.K. Sharma, Director, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MoRTH), said, “There are challenges for road transport sector in reducing emissions, given that large number of vehicles that are transitioning to various standards. We expect technology development to meet the standards of emissions in the future. With foreign direct investment, we hope to build better technology and capacities.”

It is estimated that Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission norms will be implemented by 2017, BSV by 2019 and BSVI by 2023. Special incentives are being given to manufacturers by way of tax /excise duty from the date of introduction up to January 2019 for BS V and 2023 for BS VI.

 It was acknowledged by all at the session that the best practices adopted by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation and Indian Railways have contributed very significantly in the mitigation of emissions.


Disclaimer: This video has been developed by an external organisation. The correctness of the facts mentioned therein is therefore the responsibility of the owner of the video.

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